3Dprinting is a technology that enables the production of 3D models by the addition of layers - a generic name of additive technology, often referred to as Rapid Prototyping. The largest share of 3D printers market has hobby 3D printers working on the principle of FDM technology, which are offered either assembled or in the form of a kit. The cost of these printers in the form of a kit starts already at about 10 thousand crowns, assembled and tested printers begin at the amount of 30 thousand crowns. Part of the printer's delivery is usually a program to generate a nozzle path in the construction of a so-called g-code model. In this program the basic parameters of the built-in model are set, eg the density of the internal fill, the number of peripheral layers, the generation of supports, etc. The first picture is the screen of the 3D printer control program UP !, the file is loaded in the format .stl (the roof of the Mariánské věže na Karlštejně) , Two open menus for setting the model parameters are displayed. In the second image, the same model is loaded into Repetier and generated data for printing on the FELIX printer. In this case, the generated data is played back on the memory card and sent from the control panel with the display at the bottom of the printer for printing.
Once the model is sent for printing, the data is played back into the printer's memory, and then prints automatically without connecting to the computer. All 3D modeling devices work on the principle of distributing the computer model to thin layers and then building them into a real model in the printer's workspace. The model is built on a motherboard that drops down just after the thickness of the layer.
The 3D printing area is constantly evolving and, in addition to the most common technology of extruding material from heated nozzles, there is a wide range of other technologies used to build models, the following overview lists some of them:
- SLS - Selective Laser Sintering, powder coating with laser beam, layer thickness approx. 0,1mm, cheap construction material, price of the model compensated by the high purchase price of the machine, use area: unlimited, ideal for subtle air structures - EOS, Germany, www.eos.info
- SLA - Stereolithography, the oldest technology used since 1986, curing of liquid composite by laser beam, universal technology - 3D Systems, USA, www.3dsystems.com
- ZCORP - In a thin layer, the powder is bonded with a binder that is pushed out of the print heads (similar to an inkjet printer). It is also possible to produce a color 3D model, the surface is not smooth, the model is fragile and requires further surface treatment. Surface quality and detail detail, the only technology to produce color models - Zcorporation, USA, www.zcorp.com
- LOM - Laminated Object Manufacturing, each layer is cut out of plastic and glued to the previous layer, the layer thickness is 0,165mm, the cheapest building material, the model is placed in a block of material with the maximum dimensions of the 3D model (X x Y x Z), a large amount of building material is not used ), The support material is mechanically removed, the highest quality surface of the horizontal surfaces, the area of application: mass models, unsuitable for very subtle constructions, very good surface and accuracy - Solido, Israel, www.solido3d.com
- LOM COLOR - The MCOR IRIS printer can use LOM technology to build A4-size printed models, cheap building material, but slow construction speed - MCOR, IRE, www.mcortechnologies.com
- FDM - Fused Deposition Modeling, thin Layer Thin Layer Application, Two Building Materials - Modeling and Supporting, Layer Thickness 0,25mm, Minimum Waste, Coarse Structure of the Model - Large Layer Thickness, Unbalanced Horizontal Layer, Support Material Removed Manually. Water, application area: fixed, shape-stable mechanical models without surface quality requirement, unsuitable for subtle constructions, the most commonly used technology in the category of hobby printers - Dimension, USA, www.dimensionprinting.com
- FDM COLOR - in new colors and in the HP Designjet 3D Color Printer
- POLYJET MATRIX - The printing pressed extruded photopolymer is cured with UV lamp, two building materials - modeling and supporting, high quality surface of models, layer thickness 0,016mm, support material is removed by pressure water, limited life of construction material approx. 1 year, several types of building materials, : Unlimited, suitable for models with a high degree of detail - Objet, Israel, www.2objet.com
- MULTI JET MODELING -Thermoplastic material - wax - is extruded by print heads, two building materials - modeling and supporting - with different melting heat, support is removed by heating the model - 3D systems, USA, www.3dsystems.com
- THERMOPLASTIC INKJET WITH MILLING - Combination of extrusion of thermoplastic material with horizontal milling, very precise method of model construction suitable for casting with the lost model method - Solidscape, USA, www.solid-scape.com
- DIGITAL LIGHT PROJECTION - Technology based on photopolymer illumination with UV projection of model cut, universal technology, virtually wasteless technology, limited material life - EnvisionTEC, Germany, www.envisiontec.de